Arch.Comput.Meth.Engng. 4, 295-323, 1997
H.E. Pettermann, T.J. Reiter and F.G. Rammerstorfer
Institute of Lightweight Structures and Aerospace
A review of the state of the art in computational modeling and analysis of
the mechanical behavior of living bone is given.
Particular attention is placed on algorithms for the simulation of the
stress or strain induced remodeling process.
A special remodeling algorithm is presented which allows the simulation of
internal bone remodeling taking into account not only adaptation of the
spatial distribution of the effective mass density, but also the adaptation
of the orientation of the material axes and of the orientation dependent
Such remodeling algorithms require a sound formulation of the constitutive
relations of bony material.
For this purpose some micro-macro mechanical descriptions of bone in its
different microstructural configurations are discussed.
In conjunction with the above mentioned remodeling algorithm a new unified
material model is derived for describing the linear elastic, orthotropic
behavior of bone in the full range of micro-structures of cancellous and
The application of the novel remodeling algorithm is demonstrated in an