Appl.Mech.Rev. 43, 261-282, 1990
F.G. Rammerstorfer¹, K. Scharf¹ and F.D. Fischer²
¹Institute of Lightweight Structures and Aerospace
TU Wien, Vienna, Austria
²Institute of Mechanics,
University of Mining and Metallurgy, Leoben, Austria
This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded
liquid filled shells by the mehtods of earthquake engineering, fluid
dynamics, strutural and soil dynamics, as well as the tehory of stability
and computational mechanics.
Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be
We will emphasize cylindircal above-ground liquid storage tanks with a vertical
But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations.
For the calculation of the cynamically activated pressure due to an
earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved.
The review will describe the methods, propsed by different authors, to solve
this interaction problem.
To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish
between anchored and unanchored tanks.
In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the
If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur,
and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved.
We will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to
this problem, in combination with experimental data.
An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable
as tools for an earthquake resistant tank design, which can be used by an
engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.