*Appl.Mech.Rev.* **43**, 261-282, 1990

### STORAGE TANKS UNDER EARTHQUAKE LOADING

F.G. Rammerstorfer¹, K. Scharf¹
and F.D. Fischer²

¹Institute of Lightweight Structures and Aerospace
Engineering,

TU Wien,
Vienna, Austria

²Institute of Mechanics,

University of Mining and Metallurgy, Leoben, Austria

**Abstract** -
This is a state-of-the-art review of various treatments of earthquake loaded
liquid filled shells by the mehtods of earthquake engineering, fluid
dynamics, strutural and soil dynamics, as well as the tehory of stability
and computational mechanics.
Different types of tanks and different possibilities of tank failure will be
discussed.
We will emphasize cylindircal above-ground liquid storage tanks with a vertical
axis.
But many of the treatments are also valid for other tank configurations.
For the calculation of the cynamically activated pressure due to an
earthquake a fluid-structure-soil interaction problem must be solved.
The review will describe the methods, propsed by different authors, to solve
this interaction problem.
To study the dynamic behavior of liquid storage tanks, one must distinguish
between anchored and unanchored tanks.
In the case of an anchored tank, the tank bottom edge is fixed to the
foundation.
If the tank is unanchored, partial lifting of the tank's bottom may occur,
and a strongly nonlinear problem has to be solved.
We will compare the various analytical and numerical models applicable to
this problem, in combination with experimental data.
An essential aim of this review is to give a summary of methods applicable
as tools for an earthquake resistant tank design, which can be used by an
engineer engaged in the construction of liquid storage tanks.

(hjb,960710)